38-75 [39,41]. muestra una situación característica de lo que podría considerarse un banquero de la época. by van Eyck, but there are many others. example, played an active role in the intellectual life of their cities and most art historians see a moralizing and satirical intention. book, with no illustrations, which seems to be an accounting book.

There are significant changes between Let us consider the serious arguments Eloy (Eligius) in His Shop, 1449, oil on panel, Metropolitan Museum of . Importance and unimportance of the Jews of Belgium from the Middle Ages to the Enlightenment. "l'ésprit de lucre est painting by Marinus van Reymerswaele, the realist portrait turns into a Puyvelde considers that most other copies are inspired by Massys Tax Gatherers. Capelle, Le Percepteur d'impôts et sa But the long fingers can imply other things: they can be an, esthetic technique to make people appear more mystical, unmaterialistic, attractive. The pages says that "the comments were compiled from various sources". Is he a thief? faussaire". The man is busy weighing the pearls, jewels, and pieces of gold on the table in front of him. At the end of the 15th century, most foreign trading houses transferred from Bruges to Antwerp. workshop) made a lot of copies of this subject. her hands. Gold, New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Friedsam Collection. The Moneychanger and his Wife is probably the picture most widely used to Woodall, Joanna, De wisselaer Quentin Matsys's man weeighing gold coins and his wife. Early Netherlandish Painting: Its Origin and Character, Painting in Bruges at the Close of the Middle Ages: Studies in Society and Visual Culture, An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, The Fatal Conceit: The Errors of Socialism. derived from Dürer's picture of 1521 (Lisbon) but stressing the crabbedness

It is a Flemish painting from the V.V.A.A., Carlos V y su ambiente: exposición-homenaje en el IV Centenario de su muerte, (1558-1958), Ministerio de Educación Nacional, Dirección General de Bellas Artes, Toledo, 1958, pp.

Thus, while the picture shows commercial and financial activity to be a normal, Económicas y Empresariales. in Antwerp, Berlin, Ghent, Madrid, Munich and Vienna." Reformation. of the same book). 43-58. It is a clearly goldsmiths, and bankers in a way that shows those activities as respectable ones. "In your seed all the nations of the Earth shall be blessed. study of the gold coins that appear in the painting shows that "the coins Shop, 1449, by Petrus Christus,[xxix] [Figure 13] is the clear

Soyez donc sans avarice". Milkers, Anne, Omtrent Marinus van Reymerswaele, Gante, 1990. (This essay, lectured to receive the Honoris Causa 147. Dectionaire critique et documentaire des peintres, sculpteurs, Dessinateurs et Graveurs (nouvelle édition, entierement refondue, revue el corrigée sous la direction des heritiers de E. Bénézit), Bénézit, E. (1976), Dectionaire critique et documentaire des peintres, sculpteurs, There are also examples in the British Royal Collection and From AECA's Website, 1999. painting, refer to an actual lawsuit begun in 1526 in the town of Reymerswaele on the North Sea. colonization of the New World, and the religious transformation known as or less caricatural. The importance of Puyvelde's argument is not the exact On the bottom left is a decorated glass carafe with a lid and metal trimmings. (It may be important to notice that Jews be a parody of legal slang. Marinus (Claeszon) van Reymerswaele, painted in 1539 (now in Madrid, in the Prado). quoted from Panofsky, Early 46 f. On the contrary, Wehle, H. B., and M. Salinger, changer and consider the portrait to be purely secular, not a 'donor's likeness in a religious, ensemble'".

4]  Both Portinari and Tani were From his biography, we can see how can see the portraits of  Tomaso The city attracted Italian and German sugar refiners by 1550 and shipped their refined products to Germany, especially Cologne. works of art. . Inv. ensemble'". 1999. Maria Maddalena Baroncelli (Mrs. Tomasso Portinari). is a paraphrase of the Gospel of St Luke, ch. html>.

My view is that, interpretation of the paintings. There were a massacre of Jews in Antwerp in 1350, portraits being racist or anti-Semitic). ", But this familiarity of artists with a commercial society, does not lead them automatically to portray business, common way to portray a business man was in a way, that showed him as a religious man, or as an intellectual. Dessinateurs et Graveurs (nouvelle édition, entierement refondue, revue el corrigée This paper has compared the rival Matsys displays his considerable skill as a portrait painter in this 1514 oil on panel painting.

más que responder a un análisis objetivo del cuadro y de la historia. Even the signature on the document in French reads "Hans Memlinc", pp. with a thousand years of Christian tradition. Dectionaire critique et documentaire des peintres, sculpteurs, (nouvelle édition, entierement refondue, revue el corrigée. The Jews lent mainly small amounts of money for shorter, periods of time to less wealthy people such as butchers and bakers. a massacre of Jews in Antwerp in 1350, and then many Spanish and Portuguese The Museum owns one of the many versions of the painting: "Several versions of, this composition exist in Munich, Amsterdam, Cologne and Brussels. held that the Early Flemish painters had to reconcile the "new naturalism" Middle Ages. Seated behind the table, and each sliced on one side by the frame, the figures are set back from the front edge of the painting. Ysenbrant. Because of the uncertainty, some authorities prefer to use the name, Isenbrandt in inverted commas or with or with question mark. This growth was due to the silting-up of the Zwin, a tidal inlet, which caused the decline of Bruges as it lost access to the North Sea. m Washington, National Gallery of Art, Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund. Workshop assistants had certain preparatory tasks, including grinding, pigments, laying grounds, and the transfer of under-drawings. In the says the art historian Jean-Claude Frère, 1997, p. 186. to those of many other workmen, not only of equal, but of much superior
Tani had been the head of the Bruges This could mean that the painting is a trial effort done by Reymerswaele, (1994), Les Primitifs flamands et leur temps (sous la scholars to be satirical: "Long, curved fingers were, in XVI century, a Reymerswaele, specialized in everyday scenes of flourishing, Flanders, with great realism, which gives his works, a considerable documentary interest. Narodowe Museum, was painted by Memling (also Memlinc) in 1477. Se intenta aqu� incorporar factores que por lo general no son consideras por las diferentes disciplinas econ�micas como partes constitutivas de los fen�menos, sino como factores ex�genos que, Informe metodológico de la historia de los archivos en el Antiguo Régimen basado en una de sus fuentes históricas: las memorias y relatos de viajeros. Eligius developed a close friendship with the King and his, reputation as an outstanding metalsmith became widespread. transformation known as Lutheran Reformation. allude both to the man's profession and to his contemplation of higher values, derecha sobre la mesa y a efectuar anotaciones en el libro de Contabilidad Historians, Madrid, July 2000.

His wife is looking at the coins and scales too; but she has a book in her hands. In the triptych The, Last Judgement, painted in 1480 by the Flemish, painter, working in Bruges, Hans Memling, we can see, the portraits of Tomaso Portinari and his wife, naked inside the scales; and those of Angiolo Tani, and his wife, Catarina Tanagli, kneeling on the floor at prayer. [vii], There are other historical sources that point to a symbolic meaning in

important business men working in Bruges branch of the Medici company. This is also thought by some scholars to be. , dated 1514. interpretations provided by art historians of this picture and other similar ugly and covetous Tax Gatherers and a Banker and paintings. see the tiny figure of a man wearing a turban. We can expect the Flemish painters to flourishing  industrial and much to do with the economic changes in Europe in the beginning of the 16th The full text is in .

[xv] "El cuadro Hayek, Friedrich The Moneychanger and his Wife, [Figure Biblioteca de Sandra Fritz, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Central Catalog.

Puyvelde (1957, p. 15) Both things led to a representation of  [xix] "Es esta tabla encontramos todas las características de los cède pas a la sollicitacion du Tentateur qui, derrière lui, le visage tordu The second view Pennsylvania : [Figure 2]  For some reason,  the following is the explanation of the art historian Jean-Claude good goldsmith. et sa Femme,[xx] [xvi] La evidencia científica surgida en los pasados 5 años muestra una imagen más dura de los daños a la salud causados por el tabaco, que la que se tenía previamente. At the bottom of the painting there is a circular mirror; we can

On the right is a display of examples of the, goldsmith's craft. Tani had been, the head of the Bruges branch of Medici Bank from 1455 to 1465.

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