Elizabeth was Born to the King & Queen. Frederick was again excommunicated by Pope Innocent IV at the First Council of Lyons in 1245. Many of the famous excommunications of history, of course, are those associated with the various Protestant leaders, such as Martin Luther in 1521, Henry VIII in 1533, and Elizabeth I in 1570. Your email address will not be published. On this day, Pope Paul III (Alessandro Farnese) excommunicated the English King Henry VIII, six years after his first conflicts with the Catholic Church began. Clement surrendered to Charles and was held prisoner for six months before escaping dressed as a gardener. This resulted in his excommunication that same year. Nothing like this had been seen since the sacking of Constantinople 300 years earlier. November 1, 1950: Pius XII & the Dogma of the Assumption–70 Years Ago. Clement VII, Italian pope from 1523 to 1534. Much to his credit were the works of art produced at that time. Anne Boleyn’s Downfall: Who was responsible? Anne Boleyn: The king’s passion, the people’s enemy. Henry illegally married his new wife Anne Boleyn and left his former Queen Katherine of Aragon. Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume IV, 6256. Publication of this bull may be made in Dieppe or Boulogne in Fiance, or in St. Andrew’s or Coldstream (? 1536: Henry VIII Marries his Third Wife only 11 Days after his Second Wife’s Execution, 1536: Anne Boleyn Arrested for Adultery and Incest. 1540: King Henry VIII Married for the Fourth Time, Contemporary History (20th century onwards), Early Modern History (16th to 18th century). He went first to Orvieto and eventually to Viterbo.

Perhaps the most gripping story of excommunication is that of the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, who was excommunicated three times by Pope Gregory VII. Pope Clement VII had threatened the king with excommunication in March 1530 after he had found out from Catherine of Aragon that Henry had boasted that he would take a second wife “notwithstanding the inhibition and mandate against him”.1 Then, in July 1533, the Pope had declared “his divorce from Katharine and marriage with Anne Boleyn null […] pronouncing the King to have incurred the greater excommunication, but suspending the declaration of the same till the end of September.”2 Henry VIII ignored the Pope’s warnings and on 30th August 1535 Pope Paul III issued a sentence of excommunication against the king.3 This excommunication was then suspended, in the hope that Henry would toe the line, but his subsequent behaviour led to the Pope finally renewing the bull and excommunicating the king on 17th December 1538: “Bull against Hen. A year later, in 1527, an army of mutinous imperial troops made up of Spaniards, Italians and Germans, forced their commander, Charles III, Duke of Bourbon, to lead them to Rome. Nov. 1–The Feast of All Saints: Visit the Saints & Blesseds Section of Papal Artifacts! He expanded the Vatican library, restored and beautified churches and buildings within Rome, and he completed work on fortifications within the city. Henry VIII’s request for a dispensation from his marriage to Catherine of Aragon went largely unheeded by Clement since Catherine’s nephew happened to be Emperor Charles V. His refusal to grant the dispensation resulted in the great schism in England in 1534, shortly before Clement’s death. They called themselves The Society of Jesus, the Jesuits and they became the chief means of bringing about constructive change within a morally compromised church. As part of the effort to fight Protestantism, he excommunicated Henry VIII of England in 1538 because of the latter's divorce from Catherine of Aragon, a key event in the English Reformation. Henry illegally married his new wife Anne Boleyn and left his former Queen Katherine of Aragon. Raised by his uncle, “Lorenzo the Magnificent”, Giulio was made the archbishop of Florence in 1513 by his cousin, Leo X, and a cardinal deacon in 1517, at the age of thirty-eight. Furthermore, he proclaimed himself head of the Church of England, denying the papal primacy. 1509: How did the famous Henry VIII become the English king? More alliances followed, this time with the king of France, and all of these maneuverings coincided with the religious upheavals simultaneously taking place in Germany and in England that would change the face of Christianity forever. Eventually Charles defeated King Francis in 1524 at the battle of Pavia. He was primarily seen as a Renaissance prince preoccupied with Italian politics and the advancement of his family, the Medici. He died in battle but the army broke through the papal capital’s defenses and sacked Rome. Chief among his faults was his indecisiveness, which made him vacillate between Charles V, the emperor, and Francis I, king of France.

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