B., A. Heubeck, and S. West. ———. See also Moulton 1981:1–8 and Edwards 1991 on 17.132–36. The more familiar they are, the more their suitability to their contexts stands clear—and even the most abbreviated examples take on an important role in conveying tone to a developing narrative. Three other similes in this unit, however, are ambivalent; they not only emphasize the success of the Greek effort but also reveal the events of this book as inextricable parts of the plan of Zeus. Homer’s audience not only knows the simile subjects available to describe effective fighters but also is familiar enough with the horse and lion similemes to appreciate the poet’s choice of elements from the similemes for emphasizing Hector’s weakness. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. In book 2 the waves thunder on a broad beach and the sea roars. Janko 1992 on 821–23 notes that the hawk metaphor produces a real bird of omen. Yet the differences developed between the two sections are important. 28. This is a scene that could well attract picnickers and hikers—not much threat compared to the violent whirlwind that is present elsewhere in the simile repertoire.18 13.795 presents the strengthened form drawn from the simileme.19, Still, the poet has not chosen the mildest descriptions of wind and waves for book 2. In the second half of book 5 the Trojans are so successful that Hera and Athena decide to journey to the battlefield in support of the Greeks. While Odysseus fought, no matter how bloody the battle in the narrative, the stages in the fighting were paralleled by images that presented nature at its most peaceful. The hallmark of Greek heroism is the willing sacrifice of one’s life for a fragile illusion, but in doing so heroes gain the sympathy and approval of all mortals, for their effort provides a noble model. If the perspective is broadened to the interaction between gods and men, the moment when Ares replaces Aphrodite/Apollo becomes a recognizable structural division; see Erbse 1961 and Moulton 1977:58–64. 5. 114. The similes support individual sections of book 21 in stressing the varied qualities of the fighting among different participants, but then in book 22 they programmatically follow the developing scene between the two champions until Hector is finally killed. Transactions of the American Philological Association 94:235–47. 42. In book 19 he will not let the Greek warriors eat before the battle, in book 21 he will reduce Lycaon to food for fish, and in book 22 he will refuse any dealing with Hector as he plays out the end of a grim process. This book introduces the story of Odysseus at an advanced stage; later he will backtrack to tell the Phaeacians his story from the day he left Troy. It's unfortunate, I loved tumblr, that's why I created tumbex. Nature and Culture in the Iliad: The Tragedy of Hector. Rabel, R. J. See discussion by Vernant 1991:104–10. Pietro Pucci’s analysis of the two lion similes at 12.299 and Ody. Patroclus immediately picks up this tone by developing the subject of the simile in his boasting words: The mocking tone about another’s death as well as the recall of the earlier simile seems inappropriate at the moment when Patroclus should most remember the warning of Achilles, the signs of his limited ability, and the danger to which he is exposing himself. When he first enters the narrative to stop Hector from mutilating the body of Patroclus, he is introduced with a short simile. In fact, he is only momentarily weakened and needs to withdraw. This display of the Greek forces provides a moment of order from which the maelstrom of the Iliad will be generated; only in book 23 will the characters of the Greek heroic world be regathered. Homer was not enslaved to these formulae, but he did choose to use and adapt formulaic speech as the basis of his expression. Yet these building blocks have their own kind of complexity because of their variety of previous associations inherited from the tradition. This is well summarized by Minchin 1992:234, drawing on the work of Schank and Abelson (1977): "Scripts are fundamental to our understanding of the world and to our ability to communicate with others. 1981. The audience not only hears this tale of the two heroes’ conflict as a major moment in the development of the narrative but also sees the results of the opposed values represented by each. The simile at 308 in which Hector is compared to the eagle against the tender lamb seems a telling exception: This simile, however, immediately follows Hector’s decision to face Achilles and die. The effect is clear and complementary to the design of the book. Even though the scene in the hall is a gory one, the simile itself is once again designed to show the normal pursuit of day-to-day business on the seacoast. 102. Göttingen. Verwundung und Tod in der Ilias. From this point on there is no release for Hector, who continues to fight bravely even though he is facing an invincible enemy. Forming an integral part of language, figures of speech are found in oral literatures as well as in polished poetry and prose and in everyday speech. 3 and 4. Since he knows that Odysseus is fated to escape from his power once he reaches Phaeacia, he has every reason to make this storm violent: Odysseus fears this severe storm, yet the audience knows that he is in no real danger. 23. Speeches have been studied in detail to determine the customary forms of direct communication. 35. Book 11’s similes play a major role in emphasizing and organizing shifts in the balance and complexity of the hard-fought battle. Transactions of the American Philological Association 80:1–23. In Signs of Orality, edited by A. Mackay. The Rise of the Greek Epic.

Stanley analyzes them as signs of a late switch from orality to a written text.27 Heiden shifts the focus from narrative moments to the completion of a significant structure: "The placement of marked ‘book divisions’ in the Iliad follows a consistent pattern. The word "Homeric" is based on the Greek author, Homer, who composed the two famous Greek epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Homer and Other Epic Poetry.

Lonsdale 1990:62 remarks on the simile’s mixture of tactical and animal vocabulary.

See Williams 1993, chap. Dynamic Memory Revisited.

The strongest simile from this simileme is Ody. 52. At a few places it seems clear that the poet has rejected the tradition’s strong suggestion of a simile.

At line 22 he is compared to a killer dolphin who scares small fish back into their holes; and at 29 in a short simile the twelve captured Trojans are described as fawns.

In book 22 he will stand on his own, with no more divine help than is given to most other Homeric heroes. Hera: Artemis beaten by, 67; and Athena journey to battlefield, 108–9, 179; Heroic code: Achilles and Hector respond to differently, 81; Achilles’ challenge to, 94, 111, 234n121; contrasting heroic models, 105; as defensive ethical system, 68; distorting effect of, 100; divine domination and, 68, 110; Hector as tragic victim of, 71, 75; Shield of Achilles and, 6, Homer: complexity of language of, 18; creative poet and co-creating audience, 174–88; formulaic language adapted by, 40–41; multivalent meanings limited by, 21; oral nature of Homeric verse, 14–17; threaded speech in, 33; traditional language inherited by, 34. Similes enforce the impression of his protected existence. Because these elements are not necessarily repeated in the same phrasing, it is not productive to use the type of close formulaic analysis developed by Milman Parry. Goatly, A. 87. 7 and Redfield 1994, chap. Figures involving a change in sense, such as metaphor, simile, and irony, are called tropes. First, the poet is describing the same moment twice in different words and from different perspectives; second, it is possible to compare parallel passages in the narrative where the poet employs a different subject or even chooses not to use a simile. Antike und Abendland 41:1–33. The first killing by the resurgent Greeks is Teucer’s slaying of Imbrius, a son-in-law of Priam, held in equal honor to the old king’s sons: In designing this passage the fictional poet begins to think: This is the first of a series of killings in the Greek resurgence. He begins the book yearning to escape the dominating nymph Calypso and ends it having passed through a series of tests, still clinging to life, yet not for a minute renouncing the crucial choice that is the fixed point from which all the later episodes of the epic arise. The king struggles to regain his rightful place and to reestablish a community of men who feel a strong common bond.

Vol. Throughout this discussion the following studies have been the most useful: Hainsworth 1988; Dougherty 2001; and Nannini 2003. To the extent that his verse-making is viewed as a mechanical process, the fault is ours for underestimating his creations on the basis of criteria developed from the study of later and more familiar poetry. The assertiveness of Idomeneus’ entrance will be heightened by his boast and then by the addition of a simile. 62. See also Homeric similes; Iliad; Odyssey, Homeric similes: audience participation of, 8–10, 31–37; background of, 14–41; basic motifs in Iliad and Odyssey, 189–205; book divisions and, 10–13; books 1 and 2 of Iliad distinguished, 11, 16–17; for character and plot delineation, 42–93; clusters, 57–58, 186, 187; for complexity in Iliad book 16, 155–70; as constructed to suit context, 8; in contrasting parallel scenes, 90–93; development within, 6–7; as easily recognized, 6; for enhancing and bringing essential features of narrative into focus, 127; as exceptional in complexity and originality, 187; exclusion in shaping individual, 37–38; as expository digressions, 4; as expression of individual poet and product of preexisting motifs, 18–19; extended, 15, 36, 182, 184, 187; families of, 17, 19–31, 37, 39; as guides through series of type scenes in Iliad book 17, 145–55; to interpret typical actions in Odyssey book 22, 112–18; juxtaposed, 43, 46, 47, 52, 78, 88, 170, 215n17, 224n129; markers of, 8, 33, 174; for marking shift of scene in Iliad book 11, 78–89; within the narrative, 174–80; narrative enhanced by, 8; for narrative theme delineation, 94–129; and oral nature of Homeric verse, 14–17, 26, 209n6; parallel similemes to create unified theme in Iliad book 5, 102–12; phrase selection in, 185; placement of, 16–17; poet’s choice in forming individual, 181–84; point of view in, 39; in problem books of Iliad, 130–73; repeated, 22, 25, 26, 28, 144, 174, 184, 237n28, 241n85; as retarding action and inviting reflection, 112; reversed, 234n120; seven identically repeated similes, 22, 26, 28; short, 25, 35–37, 39, 185, 186–87, 213n60; for showing thematic contrast in Iliad books 21 and 22, 65–78; simileme concept illuminates standard problems of, 38–41; for studying paratactic composition, 182; subject matter of, 17; thematic similes in Odyssey book 5, 118–26; unity of narrative and, 188, Idomeneus: Aeneas fought by, 139, 140–41, 178; aristeia of, 53–54, 134, 139–41, 178; Asios killed by, 140, 178–79; boar similes for, 141; entrance of, 137, 178, 236n20; fire similes for, 137; god similes for, 137; Meriones meets, 134, 137; Othryoneus killed by, 140, 178, Iliad (Homer): bird similes in, 202; book divisions of, 10–13; creative poet and co-creating audience in, 174–88; fire, Iliad (Homer), book 2: battle books contrasted with, 171; catalogue of the Greek army, 43–44, 49, 56, 58, 60–61, 153, 183; characterization by similes in, 43–65; clustering of similes 2.455–83, 49–58, 216n36; irony as major literary device of, 64; leadership as theme of, 44, 60; location of similes in, 183; narrative means other than similes in, 61–64; number of similes in, 43; role of similes in, 59–65; similes of, 44–59; tone shift between book 1 and, 181; two narrative units of, 43, Iliad (Homer), book 5: alternative means of telling story, 111; Diomedes as main character of, 102; four basic units of, 102; moves from man to god, 110; parallel similemes to create unified theme in, 102–12; similes in, 102–3, 110–12, Iliad (Homer), book 11: battle books contrasted with, 171; complexity of, 78, 90; coordination of similes and narrative themes in, 89; density of similes in, 43; ekphrases in, 1–2; location of similes in, 87, 89; major problem of, 81; new day of fighting begins in, 42; number of similes in, 43; pivotal nature of, 78, 89, 221n102; similes for marking shift of scene in, 78–89; structure of, 79–80, 88; too many characters in, 81; two sections of, 183, Iliad (Homer), book 12: battle books contrasted with, 171; direct focus on single theme in, 94–102; the Greek defensive wall, 94–95, 96, 101, 126, 127–28, 131, 224n4; mutually reinforcing themes of, 95; nontraditional similes in, 98–99; six sections of, 95–99; stones picked up by Ajax and Hector in, 127–28; sudden shift in tone of, 101–2; Zeus sends wind from Mt.

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